The coronavirus pandemic and subsequent near worldwide shutdown of international travel has hit every economy, but those countries who rely on tourism dollars have been especially impacted. With the European Union wrestling the virus under control after a debilitating number of months, European countries are beginning to open up their borders to other countries with similar numbers of coronavirus cases.
The EU announced the first fifteen countries on June 30 that would be allowed access into the EU, and the list includes three North African countries that draw Europeans for tourism in the summer: Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. Airlines and the tourism industry will welcome the move, but some countries are still holding off for similar access to the countries, including Spain.
Spain is holding out for a reciprocity agreement with Morocco that would allow Spaniards to travel to Morocco. The European Union is also only provisionally open to China on the condition that EU citizens are allowed back into China.
Morocco has had one of the strictest responses to the coronavirus with an array of limitations including a complete ban of printing and distributing physical newspapers. Morocco began their lockdown on March 20 when it still had less than 100 cases.
An early lockdown prevented Morocco from getting hit with the hardest of the coronavirus and as of July 2, the country of 36 million people has had only 12,854 confirmed cases and 228 deaths. But the Moroccan government has played it very safe and only began lifting the lockdown on June 24, the same day they announced a record 563 coronavirus cases.
Open for Business?
The European Union may have deemed Morocco safe, but the Moroccan government did not immediately open up its borders to European travel. While Moroccans flocked to the beach to celebrate a reopening of public life, the government refused to reciprocate the opening of its border with Europe.
Morocco’s coronavirus success story has also come at a high cost with immense restrictions on civil liberty and economic fallout from a stalled economy. Human Rights Watch detailed the case of a woman who was jailed for posting a video online making that poked fun at a strict civil servant enforcing coronavirus rules.
The economic fallout from coronavirus has been shared across the globe, but Morocco’s economy comprises heavily on several sources of money that have been heavily impacted by the spread of the virus. Approximately 7% of the country’s GDP comes from remittances from citizens working abroad, a number which is expected to dip in 2020 due to the pandemic.
In 2019, the tourism sector accounted for 7% of Morocco’s GDP, and 750,000 people were employed in the industry. Tourism has been brought to a standstill, and the government has tried to encourage domestic tourism to mitigate a predicted $3.4 billion shortfall thanks to coronavirus.
The OECD detailed Morocco’s economic woes related to tourism as 2.5 indirect jobs are related to the country’s tourism industry. One industry indirectly related to tourism, gas stations, saw an 80% decrease in revenue in March at the beginning of the lockdown.
With an emphasis on domestic tourism, the Moroccan government is acknowledging its reliance on tourism while still remaining cautious about opening its border. While extreme caution has led to concerns in the business world, the Moroccan government’s strong response will help the country build its reputation with coronavirus-fearing travellers.
Eager to Open
One of Morocco’s neighbours reacted more swiftly when the EU began discussing opening up their borders to international travel. Tunisia, another sunny North African nation with a hearty tourism industry, opened its borders to international travel on June 27.
Tunisia’s tourism industry is familiar with shocks to its international reputation as it has had to recover from a terrorist attack that killed 38 European tourists in 2015. 2011 Arab Spring protests also reduced international travel from countries with richer tourists.
But Tunisia’s touristic draw has proven to be resilient, and the government has shown a greater eagerness to open its borders than Morocco. Tunisia also has a better control over the virus with single-digit case numbers trickling in every day.
Tunisia and tourism companies will likely advertise Tunisia’s low level of coronavirus cases and success in suppressing the virus to attract European tourists back to their shores.
Rising unemployment numbers have also caused civil unrest in Tunisia with protestors in southern Tunisia demonstrating against the lack of jobs provided by the government. Tunisian police fired tear gas at protestors to disperse a crowd in Tataouine.,
Civil unrest due to an economic downturn has not been restricted to Tunisia, Moroccan taxi drivers also demonstrated against coronavirus restrictions. Algeria, another North African country that gained access to the European Union has had sustained protests for over a year. The Algerian movement was able to kick out long-time president Abdelaziz Bouteflika, but they have been less active due to coronavirus restrictions.
Of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, Morocco has been the most stable in recent years, and this confidence may lead them to the decision to hold off on European tourists until further safety precautions are in place.
No country reliant on tourist dollars will fare well if an outbreak occurs due to tourism, but with rising unemployment, some governments will be more receptive to opening than others.
If countries like Morocco and Tunisia are able to keep coronavirus numbers down while opening up to tourists for the summer season, they will benefit from the harsh coronavirus regime. It may be the big payoff that many citizens are waiting for, a tourism-induced boost to the economy as a reward for patience and a tough suppression of the virus.