Jordan: Future Business Hub for the Middle East?
In October 2017, the government-owned news outlet The Jordan Times reported that Minister of Planning and International Cooperation Imad Fakhoury had met with members of the U.S. administration to ask for additional assistance in carrying out economic development projects in the country. For Fakhoury and the government of Jordan, continual reliance on such assistance from the international community is an important component of their economic development strategy. As one of the few beacons of stability in the region, Jordan has positioned itself as a reliable partner and ally for many countries. Jordan also wants to be increasingly seen as a prime location for international business ventures amidst the crises of the broader Middle East. The government is trying to balance international support with ongoing reform measures to make progress with the Jordan 2025 plan as the guiding mechanism for change.
In fiscal year 2017, the U.S. government reported it provided $1.28 billion in economic aid primarily through macroeconomic growth initiatives via the Department of State and USAID, making Jordan one of the largest recipients for aid. That was under the Obama administration. Under President Trump, foreign assistance is just one area among several under consideration for deep cuts. As of now, only a little under $400 million is planned for economic assistance to Jordan. Such conversations for the government come at a time when Jordan is leading an ambitious national project to fundamentally revamp many aspects of the country. Launched by King Abdullah II in May 2015, the aforementioned Jordan 2025 plan aims to implement reforms focused on improving the private sector, expanding civil society, and increasing democratic institutionalization. Fakhoury noted, “the main objectives of the blueprint are to address the challenges of rising living costs, poverty and unemployment and to lead the community to a more prosperous level in the coming 10 years.“Jordan is just one many countries in the region undertaking ambitious long-term economic plans in this manner. But as the GCC-Qatar rift persists and oil prices continue to fall, Jordan’s path toward diversification puts it further ahead than the Gulf countries.
One way in which these changes are happening on the economic front is through partnerships with other countries and international organizations. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) worked with Jordan to develop an economic development reform package in 2016 to complement the strategy of the Jordan 2015 plan. As part of the reform, an initial assessment of the situation was in order. While Jordan experienced economic progress from 2010 to 2014, stunted growth caused by an influx in Syrian refugees as a result of the Syrian civil war, rising debt and deficits, as well as disruptions in trade caused by regional crises has affected the country since 2015. Though the country is in the process of impleme. These are expected to continue for some time in order to get the country back on track.
Despite these harsh realities, Jordan’s reforms steps are steady. The World Bank recently noted in its 2018 “Doing Business” report that Jordan has improved its ranking to 103 which is not far behind most of the GCC and better than the regional average of 126. “Divided into subnational and regional level analyses, the report covered 11 indicator sets including starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.” Major contributors to this improvement over the last few years included how much easier it is to get credit and streamlining the customs processes at ports.
So what is in store for Jordan? Despite not having a wealth of natural resources like their neighbors in the Gulf and Iraq, Jordan plans to use their strategic geographic location in the region and political stability as a launchpad to the Middle East and Asia for international businesses. As noted in the Jordan 2025 plan, the Hashemite Kingdom wants to become a “regional hub for architectural and engineering services” as well as for transport and logistics. They also plan to further develop several other sectors like tourism, health care, digital business, and financial services. Jordan’s rather liberal society, openness to investment, and stability provide a fertile investment climate for would-be investors.
The major reforms and changes taking place in the country are directed at reducing trade barriers and clarifying and implementing procedures more in-line with international standards. Tariffs and other taxes are still applied to most imports and some items require licenses to import (like pharmaceuticals), but the environment is becoming more friendly to investors and this is a priority for the government. As Jordan moves forward with its reforms, international businesses can look forward to new opportunities in a country in the center of a rapidly changing region.